重力波って何?

少し前の話なので遅きに失したという感がするが、重力波の話。

先日同僚と食事をしているときに、
「俺さんって重力波とかも何の事言っているか分かるんですか?」
と聞かれた。

その時にザックリと説明したら意外と理解してもらえたようなので blog にも掲載。

まず、相対性理論以前の重力の理論は全てニュートンの万有引力の法則で説明がついた。この万有引力は、2 個の物質の質量と距離だけで決まる。例えば、月と地球の間の引力は月と地球の質量と、間の距離だけで計算する事ができる。

例えば、今、月が真上にあるとしよう。この状態で体重を測ると、月の重力で上に引っ張られるため、本来の体重よりわずかに軽く測定されるはずだ。

では、月と地球の距離が少し変化した場合はどうだろう?
月は地球を中心とした完全な円軌道を回っているわけではない。月と地球の間の距離は、刻一刻と変化し続けている。その際、月と地球の間の引力はどうなるだろう?

ニュートンの万有引力の法則が絶対的に正しければ、月と地球の距離が変わるとその間の引力も瞬時に変わる。だから、月の位置が変わると体重計で測定される値はわずかだが瞬時に変わるはずだ。これは、「月の位置が変わった」という情報が光速を超えて地球に伝わったという事に他ならない。つまり、万有引力の法則は「情報が光速を超えて伝達する事は無い」という相対性理論と矛盾するのだ。

しかし、万有引力の法則に「重力波」という補正をかけると、この矛盾は解消する。こう考えてみよう。

  • 質量を持つ物質は、周囲に重力場を作る。
  • 質量を持つ物質は、他の物質が作った重力場から力を受ける。(これが引力)
  • 質量を持つ物質が移動すると、その近くの重力場が変わる。
  • 一部の重力場が変わると、その近くの重力場も少し変わる

こうして、質量を持つ物質が移動すると、その近くから順々に重力場が変わっていく。この連鎖的に重力場が変わる様子は波の性質を持っている。これが「重力波」だ。

いや、こんな事まで予言していたなんて、アインシュタインはすごいね。

Author: wbcchsyn

未来のスーパーエンジニア とりあえず、新しい物が大好き

106 thoughts on “重力波って何?”

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